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Heute wird das Werk einem Major Henry Livingston, Jr. Zum Ausgleich wird ein anderes namenlose Gedicht - "Old Santeclaus" - nun Herrn Moore zugeschrieben.

Wer die deutsche Übersetzung von Erich Kästner lesen möchte, der muss nach "Als der Nikolaus kam" suchen. Aus urheberrechtlichen Gründe kann ich sie hier nicht wiedergeben.

An anderer Stelle zweifelt man auch an Moores Originalität und sieht Parallelen bei früheren Werken. Genannt werden die Satire "Knickerbocker History" von Washington Irving aus dem Jahre und ein Kindergedicht "The Children's Friend", welches veröffentlich wurde.

Kluge Leute Duncan Emrich haben sich intensiv mit diesen Werken auseinandergesetzt und kamen zu dem Schluss, dass Moore das Rentier dem Gedicht und die Darstellung des dicken, fröhlichen Holländers mit seinem weissen Bart, dem roten Mantel, Ledergürtel und Lederstiefeln der "Knickerbocker History" entnommen hat.

War es in dem Gedicht noch ein Rentier, so machte Moore bzw. Kommen wir noch einmal auf die Firma mit dem braunen Brausegetränkt zurück.

She portrayed the character Simone, the mysterious, sexy bartender of a restaurant in Yaletown , Vancouver, British Columbia.

Carmen was nominated for her performance at the Leo Awards for Best Lead Performance by a Female in a Dramatic Series for Godiva's.

From to she was the lead of the APTN TV show Blackstone in the role of Leona Stoney. For this she won three Leo Awards for Best Lead Performance by a Female in a Dramatic Series, in , , and She portrayed the role of Loreen Cassway on the CBC series Arctic Air from to , for which she was nominated for the Best Supporting Performance by a Female in a Dramatic Series in Moore is also known for her many roles in the Sci-Fi genre, and saw her in the role of Special Agent in Charge Sue Adair in Fox 's Second Chance.

Carmen has dabbled in the producing and directing side of the industry. She was associate producer on Two Indians Talking , [7] and producer on White Indians Walking , both written by Andrew Genaille.

Her directing debut happened in on the short film Ariel Unraveling, a BravoFACT Award winner. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. Childress - Noche de suenos Seattle Lead Coroner. Sister Tivenan.

Show all 19 episodes. Stacey Papequash. Janet Carter. Deputy Molly Bloom. Deputy Turnbull uncredited. Show all 9 episodes. Marianna Torres.

Officer Merrill. Rita George. Alex's Assistant. Forensics Detective. Janine Carr. The assumption that Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut are language families of the Americas is mostly accepted but the one that Amerind is one family is not.

The alternative to Amerind is to posit or so separate language families. In short, genetic and linguistic reconstructions indicate that certain people and languages are more closely related since they separate at later points.

Some researchers Cavalli-Sforza, Greenberg, and Ruhlen argue that genetic and linguistic relationships go hand-in-hand; others Ringe and Kaufman criticize such an approach.

Before Old English 37 Society of Paris banned discussions on this topic in The controversy regarding the languages of the Americas is still very strong.

Earliest writings In this section, we discuss older writing systems and writing systems in general. There is a large gap between 70, years ago, when humans probably had started to use language, and the time from which we have historical evidence for language in the form of writing.

Writing found in Henan, China dates back 8, years and the Vinca inscrip- tions found widely over southeastern Europe date back 7, years.

Most scholars doubt that the former is a systematic writing system and the latter is but will most likely not be deciphered. The Chinese Oracle bone inscriptions go back 3, years and Mesoamerican Mayan writing is 2, years old.

While the origin of language seems monogenetic, writing systems develop independently in at least Mesoamerica, greater Mesopotamia, China, and Southeastern Europe.

First, we will survey the types of writing systems. Writing probably evolves from draw- ings on wood or stone petroglyphs that tell a story.

Later, the simplified symbol comes to represent one word or idea. Egyptian records use three kinds of writing: logographic, syllabic, and phonetic.

The symbols in Figure 3. Thus, Swahili, Arabic, Hebrew, and Russian all use a phonetic writing system. Some languages use a combination of writing systems: Egyptian uses three systems and Japanese four, each for conveying different kinds of information.

English is also starting to include some syllabic symbols in informal writing. Deciphering the writing systems of Old Egyptian over 5, years old , belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family and Old Indian 2, years old , Old Persian 2, years old , and Hittite 3, years , all belonging to Indo-European, resulted in theories about the relationships among languages.

It also provided, and continues to provide, insight into lin- guistic change. The change from Old Egyptian to Coptic involves a cyclical shift from synthetic to analytic to synthetic see Hodge In Chapter 10, we will investigate whether a similar development is occurring in Modern English: after becoming an analytic language, Modern English shows synthetic characteristics again.

In conclusion, ancient writings allow us to understand long-term linguistic change. Knowledge of earlier stages also gives rise to speculation about why language changes and what the original language is.

Indo-European to Germanic: Sound changes Sir William Jones, a British judge in late-eighteenth-century India, made the larger schol- arly community aware of correspondences between Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit.

Words from different languages, such as tres and treis, in Table 3. Sometimes cognates are hard to recognize because their sounds or meanings have shifted in one language but not in another.

To find linguistic relations, we usually take words such as pronouns, numerals, and kinship terms as com- parison material since they are supposed to have changed the least.

This kind of compari- son work is known as the Comparative Method. If we look at Table 3. Before Old English 39 Table 3. This turns out to be correct: A and B are Arabic and Hebrew, members of the Semitic family; C is Sanskrit, D Avestan, E Greek, F Latin, G Gothic, H Celtic, all members of the Indo-European family; I is Turkish, a member of the Altaic family.

The branches of Indo-European are given in Figure 3. This representation is simplified since no rela- tionship between the main branches is indicated.

The usual assumption is that Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic are more closely connected and that Celtic and Italic are similarly closer to each other.

The Tocharian and Anatolian branches split off the earliest Ringe 5 but are now extinct. Indo-European Anatolian Hellenic Baltic Celtic Albanian Tocharian Indo-Iranian Italic Slavic Germanic Armenian Figure 3.

A great deal of debate surrounds the possible Indo-European homeland. The way the languages in each branch develop has, to a large extent, to do with what non-Indo-European language s they come into contact with.

After the last Ice Age and before the coming of Indo-European and Uralic speakers, Europe was repopulated dur- ing the Neolithic period BP BP by people from areas where the ice had not reached.

The mitochondrial DNA of the current European population confirms a pre Indo- European origin see Sykes This population may have been what Vennemann a; calls Vasconic, i.

Vennemann ties several Germanic and Romance words, not found in other Indo-European languages, to Vasconic and also certain placenames, e.

Languages possibly related to Basque are the extinct Etruscan in Italy, Aquitanian in France, and Iberian in Spain.

In addition to Vasconic, Germanic came into contact with Finno- Ugric, i. Uralic Prokosch The figure shows the correspondence between an early Indo-European sound and an English, Dutch, or other Germanic sound.

The same is true for Latin tenuis, which parallels English thin; and Latin centum, which corresponds to English hundred.

This accounts for the first set of three. The other sounds can be grouped similarly. The second set, [b, d, g], are voiced stops changing into voiceless stops.

Some of these cor- respondences are trickier to spot because other changes have occurred as well.

For instance, there is metathesis in the spelling of acre and deletion of the middle consonant in decem. Before Old English 41 The third set of changes involves the aspirated voiced stops [bh, dh, gh], fairly common in Sanskrit, corresponding to voiced stops, i.

For example, Sanskrit bhrata corresponds to English brother, dhwer to door, and ghosti to guest. These can all be found by looking up the etymology of the English word in the OED.

The exact correspondences are: Sanskrit bh with Latin f and Greek ph; Sanskrit dh with Latin f and Greek th; and Sanskrit gh with Latin h and Greek ch.

These correspond- ences are provided in Figure 3. Sanskrit bh dh gh Latin f f h Greek ph th ch Germanic b d g Figure 3. This entire process happens in Germanic; Latin and Greek are interesting in that they participate in one stage but what is an aspirated stop in Sanskrit corresponds to a fricative in Latin.

This course of events could be characterized as a push-chain or a drag-chain. Sanskrit is the first form given except for kanab which is Old Persian , Latin the second, and English the third.

It is important to remember that the change takes place only once in a word: dhwer corresponds to door but the latter does not change to toor.

Within Germanic, many changes have taken place that help differentiate languages such as English, German, and Swedish.

The differ- ent branches of Germanic are provided in Figure 3. Middle High German is not, and no dialects are listed. Germanic West North East Old Norse Gothic North Sea Old High German West East Anglo-Frisian Old Saxon Old Dutch German Low German Dutch Icelandic Norwegian Danish Swedish Old English Old Frisian Faroese English Frisian Figure 3.

The complexity of the endings on nouns and verbs is something the older Germanic languages, Old English included, inherit from Indo-European; there are changes specific to Germanic, however, as we will see.

In this brief section, we will examine how an older Indo-European language, namely Sanskrit, changes. The instrumental designates the instrument with which the action takes place, the locative where it takes place, the ablative the source, and the vocative shows that a person is addressed.

Take a look at the sentence in 2 where the word order is free. The nominative in 2 is indicated by the lack of an ending, shown as zero.

The nomina- tive nom tells you that Ramah is the subject of the sentence whereas the locative loc tells you that the action is taking place inside the forest.

Table 3. In 2 , we could leave out the subject since it is expressed through the -ti ending on vasati. An approximate pronunciation is provided rather than the Devanagari script that both Sanskrit and Hindi use or the adapted Arabic script that Urdu uses.

In 3 , there are case endings on the nouns and agreement markings on the verb, indicated by the hyphenated suffixes. In comparison to Sanskrit, Old English has fewer cases, namely only nominative, geni- tive, dative, and accusative and an almost non-existent instrumental.

There are many other differences between older Indo-European and older Germanic. The latter developed weak verbs i. We used Sanskrit as a representative for Indo-European.

In general, older Germanic languages are more analytic than Sanskrit. However, Hittite, an Indo-European language spoken over 3, years ago and older than Sanskrit, has a grammatical structure that is simpler in many respects no dual number and no feminine gender.

This may mean that the complex endings in Sanskrit are a later development, not present in the original proto Indo-European. In conclusion, older Indo-European languages differ in their syntax and morphol- ogy from more modern Germanic ones, even though they all share a common ancestor.

Latin and Greek have endings on nouns and verbs similar to Sanskrit e. Thus, the inflectional endings of Old English are due to its Indo-European and synthetic origins.

Reconstruction methods In this section, we will briefly discuss how to reconstruct the sound system of a language when we have spoken or written evidence and when we do not and when we reconstruct a proto-language.

Reconstructing the morphology and syntax is more controversial and will not be attempted see Lightfoot and Lehmann for opposite views.

Looking at the extant languages helps us reconstruct languages for which we have no written records. Linguists often compare related languages, for instance, French, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, and Spanish, as in 5.

We might first identify the form the majority of languages use. We could also reconstruct by looking at the actual rules to see if they make phonetic sense.

Before Old English 45 6 a. Change b, however, does not make sense since typically stops become fricatives between vowels and not the other way around.

We keep changes a, c, and d, but change b into a frica- tion rule stops to fricatives. Even though the change has to apply in four languages, it is preferable linguistically.

If a fair number of such words shows the same correspondences, the reconstruction is probably accurate. This is made clearer in Table 3.

There are, however, some [b] sounds that do not change providing extra support for the redone 6b , e. The words in a hypothetical family such as Nostratic see Figure 3.

Some words that have been sug- gested as being part of Nostratic are listed in 8. We can see that all these words are clearly related: Old English and Tamil could have added endings and, since [b] and [p] are both bilabial stops, having a [b] lose its voicing to become [p] in Tamil is a regular change.

The latter kind of a methodology for reconstructions has been criticized extensively. With the spread of agriculture and other technical advances, words could have been bor- rowed and their similarities might not be proof of linguistic relationships; they could be coincidental.

Each group of people constructs a certain identity, sometimes based on true events, sometimes not. The most notorious example is that of Europe during World War II: a myth of Germanic superiority was created that justified terrible atrocities.

Some ideas were inspired by the Aryan Myth as Poliakov calls it. Poliakov and Bernal ; argue that the reason Indo-European studies became popular in the early 19th century was a racist, anti-Semitic, and anti-African sentiment.

There are other examples of ideology influencing political identity. The Harappan or Indus Valley culture flourished in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro from to BCE.

It was an advanced culture, with irrigation, large cities, trade, and a writing system. A number of groups would therefore like to claim it as their ancestral group.

Before Old English 47 South and one small group to the Northwest the Brahui speakers. Some authors, however, claim that the Harappan culture is Aryan, not Dravidian e.

Feuerstein et al. Another example involves East Asia. To many linguists, Japanese and Korean look related, especially in their grammars.

This fact is not popular with either the Japanese or the Korean population, however. Up to , according to e. Diamond , it was taught in Japan that the Japanese originated in Japan.

Another debated issue is the origin of the Ainu, now living in Northern Japan, who are presumably descendants of the indigenous population.

There is currently a lot of DNA work trying to shed more light on this, e. Conclusion This chapter provides a brief account of when we think language started at least 80, years ago and how it spread.

Once people migrated, their language often changed; this resulted in the different language families present in the world. Of the earliest language, we know nothing.

The earliest writing is from 5, years ago and helps us understand some of the changes. We also examined changes in the sounds, morphology, and syntax between Indo-European and Germanic.

When there are no written records, linguists have methods for reconstructing words in a hypothetical, i. As a last point, we discussed some broader issues related to language, its origins and its changes.

Ruhlen 85 provides the following chart of words in certain Native American languag- es, using the Comparative Method. Try to find the languages that go together.

How many families do you find? Before Old English 49 4. Be careful to con- sider the pronunciation, not the spelling.

The American Heritage Dictionary has a list of Indo-European roots you could use www. Try looking up some of the Indo-European words discussed in this chapter and see if you can identify some of the changes.

Latin has haedus with the same meaning. Explain how the Latin corresponds to Old Norse geit and eventually Modern English goat.

Identify the functions subjects, objects, locations, sources, or instruments of the underlined words in the Sanskrit sentences. Initially, the native Celtic inhabitants and new- comers presumably lived side-by-side and the Germanic speakers adopted some linguistic features from the original inhabitants.

During this period, there is Latin influence as well, mainly through missionaries from Rome and Ireland. The existing evidence about the nature of Old English comes from a collection of texts from a variety of regions: some are preserved on stone and wood monuments, others in manuscript form.

The current chapter focusses on the characteristics of Old English. In Sections 3, 4, and 5, we discuss some Old English grammar. Its most salient feature is the system of endings on nouns and verbs, i.

Most remaining texts in Old English are religious, legal, medical, or literary in nature. These factors make it hard to compare dialect, genre, and age.

A partial list of works in Old English is provided in Table 4. The scribes who copied and illustrated the manuscripts worked mainly in monasteries.

The manuscripts are often exquisite works of art. Lindisfarne Gospels. Northumbrian interlinear gloss; c. Rushworth Glosses.

Interlinear gloss; c. Matthew is Mercian; Mark, Luke and John are Northumbrian. The Junius Manuscript. Written between the 7th and 10th centuries some argue partly by the Caedmon poet ; compiled towards the late 10th; contains Genesis, Exodus, Christ and Satan.

The Exeter Book. Early poetry; contains Riddles, Wulf and Eadwacer, The Wanderer, and the Seafarer. Early West Saxon, late 9th century, ascribed to King Alfred.

Boethius and Orosius. Early West-Saxon, ascribed to King Alfred. Homilies, by Aelfric. West Saxon, circa Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Many versions, one composed in Peterborough that continues to These works were written on vellum, very expensive thin leather.

Books were therefore owned by a monastery, a church, or a wealthy person and were typically versions of the Bible, prayer books, school books, manuals of various kinds, and music scores.

Facsimile editions, such as the one in Figure 4. There is a word-by-word gloss of Figure 4. Try to read a little! Looking at facsimile editions or originals is important because these works are often modernized by editors when they appear in anthologies and scholarly editions.

Other Old English texts are available in transliterated form i. There are also corpora with selec- tions of texts such as the Helsinki Corpus or HC.

The Dictionary of Old English project from the University of Toronto makes available for a fee; www. It is also available electronically at libraries that subscribe to the Dictionary of Old English Corpus.

Most Old English texts, especially manuscripts such as Beowulf, use a modified Roman alphabet. This alphabet was introduced by Irish missionaries and the letter shapes are not identical to those of Modern English.

The last two are used interchangeably. Originally, a w was written as one u or two u symbols hence the term double u , but it is also written using a runic p and called wynn or wen.

Capital letters are often absent as are most punctuation marks. Abbreviations are frequently used, e. As you can see in Figure 4.

Try to find some of the special symbols in Figure 4. Table 4. The c symbol in cyninga line 2 represents the [k] sound, as it still does in certain Modern English words.

The " in da"um line 2 is more complex. It originates from an Irish letter called the yogh and normally represents a [j] but, before back vowels, it represents a voiced velar fricative [2] , a sound that Modern English lacks.

This symbol can also be seen in lines 2 and 3. The y in cyninga line 2 is a vowel represented in the phonetic alphabet as [y]; it probably sounded like the u in French or the ü in German, an [i] pronounced with rounded lips.

Some texts put length markers on the vowels, but we will not do that. These inscriptions use the runic alphabet. We will look at an example but will not actually use this alphabet in reading Old English texts.

The runic alphabet, or futhorc, was in use through large areas of Europe and is prob- ably an adaptation of the Etruscan or Phoenician alphabet for an argument in favor of Phoenician, read Vennemann A key to the runes can be found in Figure 4.

Try to decipher the letters in Figure 4. Figure 4.

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